Criminal Justice 2008

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What is restorative justice?

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Question of the week

How much do you agree with imprisoning offenders for theft offences?
Very much - prison is an effective response to theft offences.
Somewhat - imprisonment might have short-term positive effects, but doesn't solve the problem on the long run.
Not at all - with mass imprisonment we just make this problem more serious, reintegration of offenders become even more difficult, not to mention the high costs of prisons that need to be paid by the citizens.

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Bibliography

in Czerederecka, A., Jaskiewicz-Obydzinska, T. and Wόjcikiwicz, J. (eds.) Forensic Psychology and Law. Traditional Questions and New Ideas, Krakow, Institute of Forensic Research Pub

In this article, the role of psychologists in victim-offender mediation is focused upon. First of all, Aertsen places the context of mediation against the background of penal cases. He then describes the method of mediation and focuses on the relational importance (empathy, communication). After...

in E. Fattah and T. Peters (eds.) Support for crime victims in a comparative perspective. A collection of essays dedicated to the memory of Prof. Frederic McClintock. With a preface by E. Fattah and Tony Peters, Leuven, Leuven...

In this essay Aertsen and Peters analyse a project involving mediation for reparation a specific type of mediation reserved for more serious crimes; its key ingredient being the communication between offender and victim. This "mediation for reparation" project started as an experiment in...

Cincinnati, Anderson Publishing, 375 p.

This volume presents a snapshot of an early but important stage of the restorative community justice movement. The goal is to capture some of the essence of this evolving creative change in the response to crime. Hence, rather than to seek to define and categorize practices and initiatives, the...

Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 199 p.

For most of recorded history, crime has called for restitution rather than retribution. In the ancient world and in pre-modern Europe, those who had wronged someone could seek refuge in a sanctuary from which they could safely propose a settlement. Starting in the 16th century in modern Europe,...

The Prison Service Journal, 123, 9- 12.

In this paper, the author describes the functioning of the Alternatives to Violence Project (AVP) and relates it to the idea of restoration. In 2000, this project already celebrated its 25th anniversary. It once started in the maximum security prison of Greenhaven, NY, after which it spread to...

Oxford, Oxford University Press, 314 p.

Restorative justice has become an important new way of thinking about crime, responsive regulation an influential way of thinking about business regulation. In this important book, John Braithwaite brings together his important work on restorative justice with his work on business regulation to...

Cincinnati, Anderson Publishing, 164 p.

Corrections, Peacemaking, and Restorative Justice: Transforming Individuals and Institutions views peacemaking as a broad, encompassing process that, while grounded in ancient philosophical and spiritual traditions, is expressed in many different shapes and forms. It blends ancient-wisdom...

West Chester Pennsylvania, Chrysalis Books, 321 p.

Breton and Lehman explore the traditional philosophical definitions of justice, and propose an alternative understanding. Leaning heavily on indigenous and spiritualist traditions as well as the philosophy of Socrates and Plato, they suggest a holistic model of justice that...

British Journal of Criminology, 42, 3, 469-667.

1. B. Hudson, K. McEvoy and H. Mika, “Introduction. Practice, Performance and Prospects for Restorative Justice”; 2. A. Crawford and T. Newburn, “Recent Developments in Restorative Justice for Young People in England and Wales: Community Participation and Representation”; 3. A. Skelton,...

in M.L. Hadley (ed.) The spiritual roots of restorative justice. With an introduction by Michael L. Hadley, Albany, SUNY Series in Religious Studies, 31-56.

Brunk, observing a lack of philosophical investigation of restorative justice by philosophers and even by advocates of restorative justice, examines key issues relating to restorative justice. His aim is to demonstrate the advantages of restorative justice in addressing the questions that...

Toronto, House of Anansi Press, 405 p.

In The Expanding Prison, Cayley investigates the immediate causes of the prison crisis and examines the history of crime and punishment. He then reveals provocative new ways of construing crime and considers proven alternatives to imprisonment -- alternatives that emphasize restitution and...

The British Journal of Criminology, 17, 1, 1-14.

Conflicts are important elements in society. Social systems should be organized so that conflicts are nurtured and made visible and so that professionals do not monopolize the handling of conflict. In particular, crime victims have lost their rights to participate. A court procedure that restores...

Corrections Today, 59, 7, 6, 8, 68-114.

1. A. Wilkinson, “Editorial”; 2. A. Seymour, “Commentary”; 3. H. Zehr, “Restorative Justice, The Concept”; 4. K. Pranis, “Peacemaking Circles”; 5. J. Gorczyk and J. Perry, “What the Public Wants”; 6. G. Bazemore and K. Pranis, “Hazards Along the Way”; 7. A. Seymour, “When Staff Are Victimized”; 8....

Driebergen, Paper presented at the conference of the International Prison Chaplains Association (Europe), 11 p. [Online] Available: http://www.kcl. ac.uk/depsta/rel/icps/restorative_justice.doc.

Taking on the perspective of the International Centre for Prison Research, the author talks about the realities of imprisonment and the prospects for the future related to the prison system. He underscores the importance of Restorative Justice as a central theme within a broader Penal Reform. His...

London, King’s College, International Centre for Prison Studies, 86 p.

At times when prison services are under great strain, prison staff can be put under pressure to give a reduced priority to the basic human decencies. This publication has two main objectives. First, it provides a working definition of humanity in the treatment of people deprived of their liberty....

London, Routledge, 272 p.

This book develops a theory of punishment based on the view that the central function of law is to reduce justified recourse to violence in the resolution of disputes. Understanding the implications of this for coercing compliance with the law allows the construction of a theory of punishment built...

Paper presented at the conference Reducing Criminality: Partnerships and Best Practice, Perth, 31 July - 1 August. [Online]. Available: http:// www.aic.gov.au/conferences/ criminality/csaba.pdf.

Focusing on a program in Western Australia, the author examines the rehabilitative potential of prison work camps for select prisoners. This kind of camp, distinct from military style boot camps or "shock incarceration" camps, emphasizes leadership, restorative justice, and work skills....

in B. Galaway and J. Hudson (eds.) Perspectives on Crime Victims, Toronto, The C.V. Mosby Company, 285-291.

As a divergent approach in contemporary corrections, a concept is proposed in this article, which is founded on historical jurisprudence and contemporary research in behavioural science and criminal justice. The concept of correctional restitution, the author says, has a stronger basis...

Centre of Criminology, University of Toronto, 119 p.

The purpose of the study is twofold. First, the aim is to explore and discover in detail how the VORP program operates. Secondly, based on a more theoretical perspective, the purpose is to evaluate the VORP program by discovering whether it is achieving its intended result, and whether certain...

Vienna, Paper Presented at the UN Crime Congress: Ancillary Meeting. Available. [Online] http://www.restorativejustice.org.

This contribution tries to assess in a critical way the practical implementation of restorative justice for juveniles. Especially the aim of restitution and the statement of respect for due process within Restorative Justice literature are investigated by means of an analysis of a Restorative...

The Prison Service Journal, 123, 6- 7.

As a researcher of the Centre for Criminological Research at Oxford University, the author reports on the possibilities of restorative initiatives within the context of detention. In broad strokes, she paints a picture of the most known models of restorative programs.

Source: Vanspauwen, K.,...

Journal of Correctional Education, 50, 2, 38-71.

The 6 articles in this special issue of the journal explore applications of restorative justice in correctional education. Editor Carolyn Eggleston offers an introduction. Ira Brand describes a day in the life of a prison teacher. Sam Halstead outlines the principles of restorative justice for use...

ERA FORUM, 1, 1-38, 49-51.

P. Cullen, S. Moreira de Sousa, “Editorial”; 1. W. McCarney, “Restorative Justice: International Approaches”; 2. B. Gormally, “The Third Corner and the Second Pillar: The Community and Restorative Justice in Northern Ireland”; 3. X., “Restorative Justice: State-led or Community-led?”; 4. C....

European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 4, 4, 1-138.

Editorial; 1. J.C.J. Boutellier, “Beyond the criminal justice paradox; Alternatives between law and morality”; 2. T.F. Marshall, “The evolution of restorative justice in Britain”; 3. F. Dunkel, “Täter-Opfer-Ausgleich; German experiences with mediation in a European perspective”; 4. L. Walgrave and...

Aldershot, Avebury Ashgate Publishing, 281 p.

This essay considers the problem of the moral justification of the deliberate infliction of pain and deprivation as a response to criminal wrongdoing. The author demonstrates how most theories of justice are in fact rationalizations of revenge, and punishments that are based on justice can easily...

Leuven, Leuven University Press, 460 p.

This book consists of a collection of previously unpublished essays written to honour Tony Peters upon his retirement in 2001 from his long and influential career as a professor of criminology at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Three main sections organize the essays. Part I contains papers on...

Criminal Law Bulletin, 8, 8, 681-691.

The restitution process being developed by the Minnesota Department of Corrections will involve the careful formulation of an explicit individualized restitution plan involving the offender, an agent of the criminal justice system, and, whenever possible, the victim. Randomly selected adult male...

Contemporary Justice Review, 4, 1, 59-74.

Prisoners who are serving long-term sentences face a unique challenge once they seek to reconcile with those whom they have harmed. There are few opportunities for prisoners to engage in victim-offender mediation programs while they are serving their sentences. Prisoners, therefore, must reach out...

London, King’s College, International Centre for Prison Studies, 11 p.

The literature on restorative justice is wide ranging but certain common principles emerge from the literature that would be accepted by most theorists and practitioners.  
It has been suggested that prisons can become more restorative by encouraging prisoners to take personal...

Networks, 13, 3. Available. [Online] http:// www.ncvc.org/newsltr/restjust.htm.

The concept of restorative justice has emerged as an approach that incorporates offender accountability, victim assistance, public safety and crime prevention. In the restorative model, crime victims, the community and offenders are all considered clients of justice processes - including...

International Review of Victimology, 6, 4, 261-416.

Introduction by the editors; 1. M.A. Young, “Restorative Community Justice in the U.S.: A new paradigm”; 2. C.T. Griffits, “The Victims of Crime and Restorative Justice: The Canadian Experience”; 3. G. Bazemore, “Crime Victims, Restorative Justice and the Juvenile Court: Exploring Victim Needs and...

Contemporary Justice Review, 6, 1, 55-68.

The article discusses a restorative justice project operating for the past two years within the wing of “governement collaborators” in an Italian prison. The project has involved the wing’s prisoners, the local and national prisons’ administration, and the local university. After offering a short...

New York, State University of New York Press, 264 p.

This book consists of a set of papers examining religious and philosophical foundations for restorative justice. The papers grew out of the “Spiritual Roots” project, an interdisciplinary and international research project to explore multi-faith perspectives on crime and punishment, especially the...

Criminal Justice Policy Review, 10, 3, 363-399.

A study evaluates "Citizens, Victims, and Offenders Restoring Justice," a pilot project at the Washington State Reformatory to explore how a restorative justice model might be practically applied in a prison setting. The study was conducted within the framework of a 10-week seminar held...

Justice as Healing, Fall. Available. [Online] http://www.usask.ca/nativelaw

In this discussion of sanctions, Huculak maintains that Canada uses imprisonment as a sanction second only to the United States of America in the western world. From its inception, imprisonment as a means of punishment for socially disapproved behaviour has been a topic of concern and reform...

The ICCA Journal, 3, August, 34-35.

A judge in the Provincial Court of Saskatchewan, Huculak remarks that Canada and the United States use imprisonment as a sanction for crime more than other Western nations. This article provides information on a restorative alternative to imprisonment. In the early 1990s sentencing circles began in...

Devon, Willan Publishing, 190 p.

Despite the attention it has attracted the phenomenon of restorative justice is little understood, and there is often confusion as to what is meant by it. The main aim of this book is to meet for a clear and accessible introduction to the ideas and values underlying restorative justice, and to the...

Devon, Willan Publishing, 520 p.

This book comprises a selection of extracts from important and influential contributions to the restorative justice literature and its emergent philosophy, accompanying these with an informative commentary providing context and explanation where necessary. The book includes contributions of...

Journal of Correctional Education, 50, 2, 38-71.

C. Eggleston, “Introduction”; 1. I. Brand, “A Day in the Life of a Prison Teacher”; 2. S. Halstead, “Educational Discipline Using the Principles of Restorative Justice”; 3. B. Bays, “Habitat at Taylorville - One Example of How Prisons Can Successively Partner with Outside Agencies for Restorative...

Thousand Oaks, Sage, 172 p.

This book addresses the specific ways of achieving five goals through which it is possible to integrate the community and the criminal justice process in probation programs. These specific ways are introduced by six case studies of probation programs that represent a practical side of the community...

Monsey, Criminal Justice Press, 207-216.

Texas has one of the largest prison populations of the nation and has recently developed one of the fastest growing restitution programs. A crowded, unconstitutional prison system and financial necessity, rather than a change in correctional philosophy, brought about the growth of restitution...

in B. Galaway and J. Hudson (eds.) Restorative Justice: International Perspectives, Monsey, Criminal Justice Press, 337-347.

Considerable research has been undertaken to ascertain public attitudes towards reparation or restitution, but less to assess attitudes towards a process, which uses both reparation and mediation. The public finds the idea of offenders paying restitution to victims attractive. There are limits to...

Dublin, Restorative Justice Ireland Network. Available. [Online] http://www.extern.org/restorative/

The author’s remark that although there is as yet no comprehensive literature on Restorative Justice in custodial settings, this report demonstrates the range of activities already being practiced. Of all the countries covered in this report, only Belgium carries out restorative justice policy in a...

London, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 256 p.

Drawing on their own experiences as mediators, the contributors to this book discuss the benefits and drawbacks of mediation in particular settings and use case studies to illustrate how mediation works in practice. This book provides a comprehensive overview of mediation for those wanting to find...

Ontario, Law Commission of Canada, 65 p.

A conceptual framework for restorative justice is required. This paper is intended to develop a conceptual framework for restorative justice in order to understand what practices meet the demands of a restorative model. The framework will articulate a definition of restorative justice, examine its...

Contemporary Justice Review, 5 (3), 261-272.

This paper describes the Citizens, Victims, and Offenders Restoring Justice (CVORJ) program, a prison-based program conducted as a pilot study at the Washington State Reformatory. The program brings together offenders and victims -though not involved in the same crime- in the company of interested...

The ICCA Journal, 3, August, 50-51, 55.

At the time of writing this article, Lund was an inmate in Minnesota. Convicted of a violent crime, she describes her involvement with various restorative justice programs. These include meaningful work both inside and outside of a prison setting, a Speakers Bureau (for inmates to address young...

London, UK, Home Office, Research Development and Statistics Directorate, 36 p.

This substantial report from the Home Office in the United Kingdom provides a comprehensive overview of restorative justice principles and practices: key ideas and perspectives; historical sketch; limitations; relevant organisations; practices; research on restorative justice; and major issues in...

Akron, Mennonite Central Committee U.S., Office on Crime and Justice, 24 p.

First, an overview is given of the developing Victim Offender Reconciliation Program (VORP) schemes. Next, program models being launched in United States and Canada are described. Amongst them we find: the Restorative Justice Project in Madison (Wis.), Genesee Justice in Batavia (NY),...

London, Home Office, Policing and Reducing Crime Unit, 105 p.

This review provides an overview of the position and use of restorative justice programmes in twelve European jurisdictions, together with summaries and examples of programmes in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America. For each country, the author describes the following...

Mediation Quarterly (changed into "Conflict Resolution Quarterly") 12, 3, 199-297.

H. Mika, “Editor's word”; 1. H. Zehr, “Justice Paradigm Shift?”; 2. T.F. Marshall, “Restorative Justice on Trial in Britain”; 3. J.O. Haley, “Victim offender mediation: lessons from the Japanese Experience”; 4. B. Galaway, “Victim Offender Mediation by New Zealand Probation Officers: The...

Canadian Journal of Criminology, 42, 3, 249-420.

Content: K. Roach, “Changing punishment and restorative justice”; J. Braithwaite, “Shame and Criminal Justice System”; H. Dumont, “Le pardon, une valeur de justice et d’espoir. Un playdoyer pour la tolérance et contre l’oubli”; A.  Doob, “Transforming the punishment environment: understanding...

Toronto, Canadian Scholar's Press Inc., 261 p.

In this book the author tells stories that show that forgiveness is not condoning or forgetting, or failing to set limits. Forgiveness is recognizing and acknowledging all that was wrong, but refusing to be destroyed by it, and refusing to be drawn into a cycle of hatred and bitterness. The author...

London, Kings College, International Centre for Prison Studies, 7. Available. [Online] http://www.kcl.ac.uk/depsta/rel/icps/restorative_prison_ paper4.doc.

Tim Newell is the Governor of Grendon Prison in England and has been involved in Restorative Justice work for a number of years. He is a member of the Management Group for the ICPS Restorative Prisons project. The governors of the English prisons involved in this project visited the Belgian Prison...

in B. Galaway and J. Hudson (eds.) Restorative Justice: International Perspectives, Monsey, Criminal Justice Press, 493-504.

The Minnesota Department of Corrections has created a full time position to promote and support movement toward a restorative justice approach to the problem of crime. The efforts of the initiative have resulted in widespread interest among corrections professionals and pockets of interest among...

The ICCA Journal, 3, August, 36-39, 43.

Though they are not always linked, restorative justice and community corrections have significant affinities. Indeed, restorative justice builds naturally on the community corrections movement. With significant affinity in the emphasis on community, community corrections can be a natural delivery...

Prison Service Journal, 123, 1-23.

Introduction, “Repairing the Harm”; 1. J. Dignan, “Restorative Crime Prevention in Theory and Practice”; 2. K. Edgar, “Restorative Justice in Prison?”; 3. X., “Manifesto of the Restorative Justice Consortium”; 4. M. Bitel, “The Alternative to Violence Project”; 5. C. George, “Victim Support's...

Washington, DC, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency, 93 p.

This conference manual presents outlines of the addresses presented at the 2-day community justice conference held in Oak Ridge, Tenn., in 1986, which focused on the costs, benefits, successes, and failures of restitution, reconciliation, and alternative sentencing programs in Tennessee and other...

Canadian Journal of Criminology, 42, 249-280.

This paper addresses many themes examined at a 1999 conference in Canada called "Changing Punishment at the Turn of the Century". Specifically, Roach discusses pure and partial theories of restorative justice, and restorative justice and net widening (for example, including more people...

Oxford, Oxford University Press, 332.

In reviving the idea of an informal alternative, the Restorative Justice movement tries to break out of the predominantly punitive thinking of modern criminal justice.  Its proponents claim that its guiding ideals - personalism, participation, reparation and reintegration - deliver a fairer,...

Ottawa, Royal Canadian Mounted Police Science and Technology Program Support Section, 122 p.

This is an edited version of the record of proceedings of a 2-day community justice conference held in Oak Ridge, Tenn., in 1986, which focused on the costs, benefits, successes, and failures of restitution, reconciliation, and alternative sentencing programs in Tennessee and other U.S....

in H. Pepinsky and R. Quinney (eds.) Criminology as Peacemaking, Bloomington, University of Indiana Press, 172-180.

The thought of translating such percepts as compassion, care, loving-kindness, and even forgiveness into an actual administrative strategy within the criminal justice system, say, the "correctional bureaucracy", can bring tingles of excitement if we allow ourselves to conjure up images of...

in B. Galaway and J. Hudson (eds.) Restorative Justice: International Perspectives, Monsey, NY, Criminal Justice Press, 477-492.

This essay reports on a lengthy intervention by an outside mediator at a maximum security reformatory who mitigated racial violence, heightened racial understanding, contributed to better management practices and led to the development of conflict prevention and conflict management structures. The...

Oxford, Oxford University Press, 298 p.

Over the past three decades, the victim movement worldwide has called for an enhanced role for victims in the criminal justice system. In this book Heather Strang argues that, despite some progress towards that goal, structural as well as political factors may mean that victims have won as much as...

Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 288 p.

This books focuses on the issues in family violence that may warrant special caution about restorative justice, in particular, feminist and indigenous concerns. At the same time it looks for ways of designing a place for restorative interventions that respond to these concerns. Further, the book...

Contemporary Justice Review, 1, 1, 1-174.

D. Sullivan, “Editor's Welcome”; 1. D. Sullivan, L. Tifft and P. Cordella, “The Phenomenon of Restorative Justice: Some Introductory Remarks”; 2. K. Daly and R. Immarigeon, “The Past, Present, and Future of Restorative Justice: Some Critical Reflections”; 3. H. Zehr and H. Mika, “Fundamental...

Monsey, Willow Tree Press, 235 p.

This books lays out all the basic issues of restorative justice but it takes a broad, transformative approach. The authors are concerned with processes of healing but also with transforming the social institutions (family, school, workplace, neighbourhood) that make real health and healing a...

Offender Preparation Process, Austin, Texas Department of Criminal Justice, 160 p.

Manual of the Victim Offender Mediation/ Dialogue program in the state of Texas. This unique mediation program takes place in the context of imprisonment. It is initiated by the victim services.

Source: Vanspauwen, K., Robert, L., Aertsen, I., Parmentier, S. (2003), Restorative Justice and...

Nashville, Abingdon Press, 141 p.

This report describes the operations and assumptions of the Indiana-based Prisoner and Community Together (PACT) program. A biblical perspective on crime and punishment suggests that: responding to crime should involve both the victim and the offender; the process of responding should be...

in E. Viano (ed.) The Victimology Handbook. Research Findings, Treatment, and Public Policy, New York, Garland Publishing Inc., 337-351.

The practice of victim-offender mediation and reconciliation has grown enormously during the past decade. The majority of programs are operated by private organizations working with courts, and the vast majority of cases represent non-violent property-related offences. The most well developed model...

San Fransisco, Jossey-Bass, 425 p.

The author has experience as a practitioner, trainer and researcher, and the Handbook reflects this breadth.  After an outline of the restorative justice concept, Umbreit places it in the context of conventional criminal justice and of social conditions generally.  The practical sections...

Federal Probation, 59, 1, 47-54.

This essay draws on the experience of the Dakota County (MN) Community Corrections Department to illustrate planning activities needed to prepare a department for fundamental changes in the approach to and delivery of restorative services. Moving a corrections department to adopt restorative...

International Review of Victimology, 6, 321-343.

Both restorative justice in general and victim-offender mediation specifically continue to be identified with primarily, if not exclusive, addressing non-violent property crimes, and perhaps even minor assaults. This article will challenge such assumptions by providing empirical evidence that...

Cincinnati, OH, Anderson Publishing Company, 228p.

This important book presents the case for restorative justice in both its theoretical and practical dimensions. Part One explores the root concepts underlying restorative justice and reviews relevant literature. Conceptual impediments to restorative justice are also presented. Part Two discusses...

Portland, Hart Publishing, 348 p.

Restorative Justice has emerged around the world as a potent challenge to traditional models of criminal justice, and restorative programmes, policies and legislative reforms are being implemented in many western nations. However, the underlying aims, values and limits of this new paradigm remain...

Graterford, Unpubl. Report at the State Correctional Institute at Graterford, 90 p.

The Victim Offender Reconciliation Program (VORP) is explained in this final report of the program evaluation. The paper describes how the ideas around developing a VORP in penal settings became recognized and admitted in the State Correctional Institute at Graterford. An extensive consultation,...

In: H. Messmer and H.-U. Otto (eds.) Restorative Justice on Trial: Pitfalls and Potentials of Victim-Offender Mediation: International Research Perspectives, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 343-354.

Nowadays, mediation and community service seem to respond to four major tendencies: (1) The reassessment of the victim’s position, (2) the need for correct legal guarantees for juvenile offenders, (3) the search for educative reactions towards the delinquent, and (4) the avoidance of overburdening...

Devon, Willan Publishing, 248 p.

One of the crucial issues is to find an appropriate combination of restorative justice, based essentially on informal deliberation, and the law. The purpose of this book is to analyse the several dimensions to this issue. It explores the social and ethical foundations of restorative justice, seeks...

Devon, Willan Publishing, 416 p.

This book, based on papers presented at the 5th international conference held at Leuven, Belgium in 2002, aims to provide an overview of recent experience of restorative justice in the light of these concerns. The central theme is the positioning, or repositioning, of restorative justice in...

The Prison Service Journal, 123, 19- 20.

The author describes the Sycamore Tree Project, a restorative initiative that was conceptualised and started by Prison Fellowship under the guidance of Daniel Van Ness. Now the project is successfully at work in the U.S., New Zealand and in the U.K. The project is based on the story of Zacchaeus as...

Dissertation Abstracts International. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms, 301 p.

Current restitution programs seriously limit eligible offenders, usually admitting primarily property and first time offenders and excluding minority offenders. This study examined 605 adult offenders tried by a Philadelphia Common Pleas Court judge between 1974 and 1984 who received sentences of...

Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press, 75-102.

In this essay, Weitekamp traces the history of restorative justice. He begins by noting the use of numerous terms in the literature about earlier societies and the history of criminal justice, terms that he claims can be united under the umbrella of restorative justice (a fairly new term):...

Devon, Willan Publishing, 372 p.

Restorative Justice: theoretical foundations addresses a wide range of fundamental questions about restorative justice, considering amongst other things ways in which conceptual pitfalls can be avoided, and how traditional models of peacemaking and healing developed in...

Devon, Willan Publishing, 368 p.

This book brings together a selection of papers originally presented and discussed at the fourth international restorative justice conference, held at the University of Tübingen. The contributors include many of the leading authorities in the burgeoning field of restorative justice, and they...

Western Criminology Review, 1, 1, Available. [Online] http://wcr.sonoma.edu/default.html

This issue is devoted to the topic of restorative justice. The restorative justice movement deserves our undivided attention as a potential alternative to present responses to crime. Today there is much discussion about restorative justice, numerous calls for its implementation, and some critical...

Corrections Today. Available. [Online] http://www.drc.state.oh.us/web/ Articles/article29.htm

Wilkinson contends that corrections departments can and should play an active role in promoting justice in their correctional systems. He says that they can do so through a more balanced approach known as community justice. He then identifies important restorative justice attributes already present...

Corrections Management Quarterly. Available. [Online] http://www.drc.state.oh.us/web/Articles/ article63.htm.

Wilkinson, director of the Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction, begins by summarizing the current state of corrections in Ohio. He notes the limits of the emphasis on incapacitation, "just deserts", and retribution. Focusing on the positive impact of community service (also...

K.U.Leuven, Faculty of Law, Centre for Advanced Legal Studies, 41 p.

The place of punishment and prisons in a justice system based on restorative justice is an important issue in the future restorative justice development. The author opens the debate by elaborating on the contradictory views and opinions of numerous 'restorativists'. She gradually moves towards a...

London, Hutchinson Publishing Group Limited, 316 p.

Wright underlines the appalling state of the prisons and reviews the orthodox reformist case for short-term improvement. Overcrowded and inhumane conditions could be improved by shorter sentences; the abandonment of imprisonment for petty offenders where it is inappropriate or counterproductive...

Scottdale, Herald Press, 280 p.

This essay examines common assumptions about crime and justice, which it terms a "retributive" lens or paradigm, and considers historical, biblical and practical alternatives. A "restorative" model is proposed that is based on the needs of victims and offenders, past ways of...

Federal Probation, 46(4), 63-68.

This study reports on the Victim Offender Reconciliation Program (VORP) operated by PACT, Inc. in Indiana and Ohio. In 1981, 180 cases were referred to VORP in Elkhart, Indiana, 85 percent of them involving juvenile offenders and 86 percent representing felony convictions (with theft and burglary...