Current restitution programs seriously limit eligible offenders, usually admitting primarily property and first time offenders and excluding minority offenders. This study examined 605 adult offenders tried by a Philadelphia Common Pleas Court judge between 1974 and 1984 who received sentences of incarceration, probation with restitution, or probation. In 29% of the cases the judge imposed a restitution sentence. No differences between the incarceration group and the restitution group with regard to violent offences, weapon used, or the victim's injuries were found. The policy implications are discussed.
Source: Vanspauwen, K., Robert, L., Aertsen, I., Parmentier, S. (2003), Restorative Justice and Restorative Detention. A selected and annotated bibliography. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid, Onderzoeksgroep Penologie en Victimologie.